While a number of developing countries have excellent food security and veterinary and plant health services, others do not. For these organizations, the requirements of the SPS agreement pose a challenge to improve the health situation of their population, population and crops, which may be difficult for some to meet. As a result of this difficulty, the SPS agreement delayed all requirements, with the exception of transparency requirements (notification and creation of investigative bodies), until 1997 for developing countries and until 2000 for least developed countries. This means that these countries are not required to scientifically justify their health or plant health requirements before that date. Countries that need more time, for example. B to improve their veterinary services or fulfill specific obligations under the agreement, may ask the SPS Committee to grant them further delays. 1. Members ensure that their health or plant health measures are adapted to the sanitary or plant health characteristics of the area, whether it is a country, part of a country or, in whole or in part, several countries from which the product originates and for which the product is intended. In assessing the health or plant health characteristics of a region, members take into account, among other things, the prevalence of certain diseases or pests, the existence of eradication or control programs, and appropriate criteria or guidelines that can be developed by the relevant international organizations. During the Tokyo Multilateral Trade Negotiations Round (1974-1979), an agreement on technical barriers to trade was negotiated (the 1979 tBT agreement or „standardization code“) (see note 2). Although not originally designed to regulate sanitary and plant health measures, the agreement covered technical requirements arising from food safety and plant health and plant health measures, including pesticide residue limits, inspection requirements and labelling.
Governments that were members of the 1979 OBT agreement agreed to apply relevant international standards (for example. B those developed by the Food Safety Code), unless they felt that these standards would not adequately protect health. They also agreed to inform other governments, through the GATT secretariat, of technical regulations that are not based on international standards. The 1979 TBT agreement contained provisions for the settlement of commercial disputes arising from the application of food security and other technical restrictions. Specific plant health and protection requirements are most frequently applied on a bilateral basis between trading countries. Developing countries benefit from the SPS agreement, which provides an international framework for health and plant health arrangements between countries, regardless of their political and economic strength or technological capacity.